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GIAC Systems and Network Auditor | Cybersecurity Certification: https://www.giac.org/certification/systems-network-auditor-gsna
Real and effective GIAC GNSA exam Practice Questions
You have been assigned a project to develop a Web site for a construction company. You plan to develop a Web site
and want to use cascading style sheets (CSS) as it helps you to get more control over the appearance and presentation
of your Web pages and also extends your ability to precisely specify the position and appearance of the elements on a
page and create special effects. You want to define styles for individual elements of a page.
Which type of style sheet will you use?
A. Embedded Style Sheet
B. Internal Style Sheet
C. External Style Sheet
D. Inline Style Sheet
Correct Answer: D
Cascading style sheets (CSS) are used so that the Web site authors can exercise greater control on the appearance
and presentation of their Web pages. And also because they increase the ability to precisely point to the location and
elements on a Web page and help in creating special effects. Cascading Style Sheets have codes, which are
interpreted and applied by the browser on to the Web pages and their elements. There are three types of cascading
External Style Sheets
Embedded Style Sheets
Inline Style Sheets
External Style Sheets are used whenever consistency in style is required throughout a Web site. A typical external style
sheet uses a .css file extension, which can be edited using a text editor such as a Notepad.
Embedded Style Sheets are used for defining styles for an active page.
Inline Style Sheets are used for defining individual elements of a page.
Reference: TechNet, Contents: Microsoft Knowledgebase, February 2000 issue PSS ID Number: Q179628
Which of the following key combinations in the vi editor is used to copy the current line?
Correct Answer: B
The yy key combination in the vi editor is used to copy the current line. The vi editor is an interactive, cryptic, and screen-based text editor used to create and edit a file. It operates in either Input mode or Commands mode. In Input mode, the editor accepts a keystroke as text and displays it on the screen, whereas in Command mode, it interprets keystrokes as
commands. As the vi editor is case sensitive, it interprets the same character or characters as different commands,
depending upon whether the user enters a lowercase or uppercase character. When a user starts a new session with vi,
he must put the editor in Input mode by pressing the “I” key. If he is not able to see the entered text on the vi editor\\’s
screen, it means that he has not put the editor in Insert mode. The user must change the editor to Input mode before
entering any text so that he can see the text he has entered.
Answer: D is incorrect. It deletes the next char on the right.
Answer: A is incorrect. It deletes the current line and one line above.
Answer: C is incorrect. It deletes from the cursor till the end of the line.
The Security Auditor\\’s Research Assistant (SARA) is a third-generation network security analysis tool. Which of the
following statements are true about SARA? (Choose two)
A. It operates under Unix, Linux, MAC OS/X, or Windows (through coLinux) OS.
B. It cannot be used to perform exhaustive XSS tests.
C. It cannot be used to perform SQL injection tests.
D. It supports plug-in facilities for third-party apps.
Correct Answer: AD
The Security Auditor\\’s Research Assistant (SARA) is a third-generation network security analysis tool. It has the
It operates under Unix, Linux, MAC OS/X, or Windows (through coLinux) OS.
It integrates the National Vulnerability Database (NVD).
It can be used to perform SQL injection tests.
It can be used to perform exhaustive XSS tests.
It can be adapted to multiple firewalled environments.
It supports remote self-scan and API facilities.
It is used for CIS benchmark initiatives.
It also supports plug-in facilities for third-party apps.
It supports CVE standards.
It works as an enterprise search module.
It works in both standalone or demo mode.
Answer: C is incorrect. SARA can be used to perform SQL injection tests.
Answer: B is incorrect. SARA can be used to perform exhaustive XSS tests.
You have to ensure that your Cisco Router is only accessible via telnet and ssh from the following hosts and subnets:
Which of the following sets of commands will you use to accomplish the task?
A. access-list 10 permit host 10.10.2.103access-list 10 permit 10.10.0.0 0.0.0.255access-list 10 deny any line vty 0 4
access-class 10 out
B. access-list 10 permit 10.10.2.103access-list 10 permit 10.10.0.0 0.0.0.255access-list 10 deny any line vty 0 4 access-group 10 in
C. access-list 10 permit host 10.10.2.103access-list 10 permit 10.10.0.0 0.0.0.255access-list 10 deny any line vty 0
4access-class 10 in
D. access-list 10 permit host 10.10.2.103access-list 11 permit host 10.10.0.0 255.255.255.0access-list 12 deny any line
vty 0 4access-group 10, 11, 12 in
Correct Answer: C
In order to accomplish the task, you will have to run the following sets of commands: access-list 10 permit host
10.10.2.103 access-list 10 permit 10.10.0.0 0.0.0.255 access-list 10 deny any line vty 0 4 access-class 10 in This
configuration set meets all the requirements. The ACL is correctly configured and is applied to the VTY lines using the
access-class command for inbound connections. Answer: D is incorrect. This configuration actually creates 3 separate
ACL\\’s (10, 11, and 12) and also incorrectly attempts to apply the ACL\\’s to the VTY lines. Answer: A is incorrect. This
configuration is correct except for the access-class command being applied in the outbound direction. When using
“access-class out”, the router will not match connections coming into the router for Telnet and/or SSH. Instead, it will
match connections being generated from the router. Answer: B is incorrect. This configuration is correct except for the
access-group command. Access-group is used to apply ACLs to an interface. Access-class is used to apply ACLs to
Which of the following tools can be used by a user to hide his identity?
A. War dialer
B. IP chains
C. Proxy server
Correct Answer: BCE
A user can hide his identity using any firewall (such as IPChains), a proxy server, or an anonymizer.
John works as a professional Ethical Hacker. He has been assigned the project of testing the security of www.we-aresecure.com. He wants to use Kismet as a wireless sniffer to sniff the We-are-secure network.
Which of the following IEEE-based traffic can be sniffed with Kismet?
Correct Answer: ABCD
Kismet can sniff IEEE 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n-based wireless network traffic.
Which of the following applications work as mass-mailing worms? (Choose two.)
A. Chernobyl virus
B. I LOVE YOU virus
C. Nimda virus
D. Melissa virus
Correct Answer: BC
The Nimda and I LOVE YOU viruses work as mass-emailing worms.
In which of the following scanning techniques does a scanner connect to an FTP server and request that server to start
data transfer to the third system?
A. Xmas Tree scanning
B. TCP FIN scanning
C. TCP SYN scanning
D. Bounce attack scanning
Correct Answer: D
In the TCP FTP proxy (bounce attack) scanning, a scanner connects to an FTP server and requests that the server start
data transfer to the third system. Now, the scanner uses the PORT FTP command to declare whether or not the data
transfer process is listening to the target system at a certain port number. Then the scanner uses the LIST FTP command
to list the current directory. This result is sent over the server. If the data transfer is successful, it is clear that the port is
open. If the port is closed, the attacker receives the connection refused the ICMP error message.
Answer: A is incorrect. Xmas Tree scanning is just the opposite of null scanning. In Xmas Tree scanning, all packets are
turned on. If the target port is open, the service running on the target port discards the packets without any reply.
According to RFC 793, if the port is closed, the remote system replies with the RST packet. Active monitoring of all
incoming packets can help system network administrators detect a Xmas Tree scan. Answer: B is incorrect. TCP FIN
scanning is a type of stealth scanning, through which the attacker sends a FIN packet to the target port. If the port is
closed, the victim assumes that this packet was sent mistakenly by the attacker and sends the RST packet to the
the port is open, the FIN packet will be ignored and the port will drop that packet. TCP FIN scanning is useful only for
identifying ports of the non-Windows operating system because Windows operating systems send only RST packets
irrespective of whether the port is open or closed.
Answer: C is incorrect. TCP SYN scanning is also known as half-open scanning because in this a full TCP connection is
never opened. The steps of TCP SYN scanning are as follows:
1. The attacker sends an SYN packet to the target port.
2. If the port is open, the attacker receives the SYN/ACK message.
3. Now the attacker breaks the connection by sending an RST packet.
4. If the RST packet is received, it indicates that the port is closed.
This type of scanning is hard to trace because the attacker never establishes a full 3-way handshake connection and
most sites do not create a log of incomplete TCP connections.
You work as a Database Administrator for XYZ CORP. The company has a multi-platform network. The company
requires fast processing of the data in the database of the company so that answers to queries can be generated
quickly. To provide fast processing, you have a conceptual idea of representing the dimensions of data available to a
user in the data cube format.
Which of the following systems can you use to implement your idea?
C. Federated database system
D. Hierarchical database system
Correct Answer: B
A multidimensional database management system (MDDBMS) implies the ability to rapidly process the data in the
database so that answers to the queries can be generated quickly. A number of vendors provide products that use
multidimensional databases. The approach behind this system is to manage how data should be stored in the
database, and depending upon that storage, how the user interface should vary. Conceptually, an MDDBMS uses the idea
of a data cube to represent the dimensions of data available to a user. For example, “sales” could be viewed in the
dimensions of the product model, geography, time, or some additional dimension. In this case, “sales” is known as the
measure attribute of the data cube and the other dimensions are seen as feature attributes. Additionally, a database
creator can define hierarchies and levels within a dimension (for example, state and city levels within a regional
hierarchy). Answer: C is incorrect. A federated database system is a type of meta-database management system
(DBMS) that transparently integrates multiple autonomous database systems into a single federated database. The
constituent databases are interconnected via a computer network and may be geographically decentralized. Since the
constituent database systems remain autonomous, a federated database system is a contrastable alternative to the
(sometimes daunting) task of merging together several disparate databases. A federated database (or virtual database)
is the fully-integrated, logical composite of all constituent databases in a federated database system. Answer: A is
incorrect. SYSDBA is a system privilege that allows a user to perform basic database administrative tasks, such as
creating a database, altering a database, starting up and shutting down an Oracle instance, performing time- based
recovery, etc. The SYSDBA contains all system privileges with the ADMIN OPTION. It also contains the SYSOPER
system privilege. Granting the SYSDBA system privilege to a user automatically adds him to the password file that is
used to authenticate administrative users. Therefore, a user possessing the SYSDBA system privilege can connect to a
database by using the password file authentication method. Answer: D is incorrect. A hierarchical database is a
database management system that implements the hierarchical data model. A hierarchical database system organizes
data in a family tree structure such that each record has only one owner and the hierarchy is in a parent and child data
segment. This implies that the record can have repeated information in a child segment. The best-known hierarchical
DBMS is IMS.
You work as a Network Administrator for XYZ CORP. The company has a Windows Server 2008 network environment.
The network is configured as a Windows Active Directory-based single forest network. You configure a new Windows
Server 2008 server in the network. The new server is not yet linked to Active Directory. You are required to accomplish
the following tasks:
Add a new group named “Sales”.
Copy the “Returns” group from the older server to the new one.
Rename the “Returns” group to “Revenue”.
View all group members, including for multiple groups/entire domains. You use Hyena to simplify and centralize all of
Which of the assigned tasks will you be able to accomplish?
A. Copy the “Returns” group to the new server.
B. Rename the “Returns” group to “Revenue”.
C. Add the new group named “Sales”.
D. View and manage all group members, including for multiple groups/entire domains.
Correct Answer: ABC
Hyena supports the following group management functions:
Full group administration such as add, modify, delete, and copy
Copy groups from one computer to another
View both direct and indirect (nested) group members for one or more groups [only for Active Directory]
View all group members, including for multiple groups/entire domain [only for Active Directory]
Answer: D is incorrect. All group members can neither be viewed nor managed until the new server is linked to Active
Which of the following mechanisms is closely related to authorization?
A. Sending secret data such as credit card information.
B. Allowing access to a particular resource.
C. Verifying username and password.
D. Sending data so that no one can alter it on the way.
Correct Answer: B
Authorization is a process that verifies whether a user has permission to access a Web resource. A Web server can
restrict access to some of its resources to only those clients that log in using a recognized username and password. To
authorized, a user must first be authenticated.
Answer: C is incorrect. Verifying username and password describes the mechanism of authentication. Authentication is
the process of verifying the identity of a user. This is usually done using a user name and password. This process
compares the provided user name and password with those stored in the database of an authentication server.
Answer: D is incorrect. Sending data so that no one can alter it on the way describes the mechanism of data integrity.
Data integrity is a mechanism that ensures that the data is not modified during transmission from source to destination.
This means that the data received at the destination should be exactly the same as that sent from the source.
Answer: A is incorrect. Sending secret data such as credit card information describes the mechanism of confidentiality.
Confidentiality is a mechanism that ensures that only the intended, Authorized recipients are able to read data. The data
so encrypted that even if an unauthorized user gets access to it, he will not get any meaning out of it.
Which of the following statements are true about data aggregation?
A. A common aggregation purpose is to get more information about particular groups based on specific variables.
B. Data aggregation cannot be user-based.
C. Data aggregation is any process in which information is gathered and expressed in a summary form.
D. Online analytic processing (OLAP) is a simple type of data aggregation.
Correct Answer: ACD
Data aggregation is any process in which information is gathered and expressed in a summary form, for purposes such
as statistical analysis. A common aggregation purpose is to get more information about particular groups based on
specific variables such as age, profession, or income. The information about such groups can then be used for Web site
personalization to choose content and advertising likely to appeal to an individual belonging to one or more groups for
which data has been collected. For example, a site that sells music CDs might advertise certain CDs based on the age
of the user and the data aggregate for their age group. Online analytic processing (OLAP) is a simple type of data
aggregation in which the marketer uses an online reporting mechanism to process the information. Answer: B is
incorrect. Data aggregation can be user-based. Personal data aggregation services offer the user a single point for
the collection of their personal information from other Web sites. The customer uses a single master personal identification
number (PIN) to give them access to their various accounts (such as those for financial institutions, airlines, book and
music clubs, and so on). Performing this type of data aggregation is sometimes referred to as “screen scraping.”
You work as a Web Developer for XYZ CORP. The company has a Windows-based network. You have been assigned
the task to secure the website of the company. To accomplish the task, you want to use a website monitoring service.
What are the tasks performed by a website monitoring service?
A. It checks the health of various links in a network using end-to-end probes sent by agents located at vantage points in
B. It checks the SSL Certificate Expiry.
C. It checks HTTP pages.
D. It checks Domain Name Expiry.
Correct Answer: BCD
Website monitoring service can check HTTP pages, HTTPS, FTP, SMTP, POP3, IMAP, DNS, SSH, Telnet, SSL, TCP,
PING, Domain Name Expiry, SSL Certificate Expiry, and a range of other ports with a great variety of check intervals from
every four hours to every one minute. Typically, most website monitoring services test a server anywhere between once per hour to once-per-minute. Advanced services offer in-browser web transaction monitoring based on browser add-ons
such as Selenium or iMacros. These services test a website by remotely controlling a large number of web browsers.
task is performed under network monitoring. Network tomography deals with monitoring the health of various links in a
network using end-to-end probes sent by agents located at vantage points in the network/ Internet.
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